Queer heroine in the DC universe / SAT 6-18-22 / Best-selling novel that begins in Pondicherry India / 19th-century activist Dorothea Dix / Performance in Studio 8H / Peshwari raisin-filled fare / Audible finger wags / Fitness activity done while suspended in a hammock

Saturday, June 18, 2022

Constructor: Brooke Husic

Relative difficulty: Easy 

THEME: none 

Word of the Day: NAT Adderley (62D: Jazz trumpeter Adderley) —

Nathaniel Carlyle Adderley (November 25, 1931 – January 2, 2000) was an American jazz trumpeter. He was the younger brother of saxophonist Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, whom he supported and played with for many years.

Adderley's composition "Work Song" (1960) is a jazz standard, and also became a success on the pop charts after singer Oscar Brown Jr. wrote lyrics for it. [...] While he was an integral part of the Cannonball Adderley Quintet, this was not the only project occupying his time in his career as professional jazz musician. Since moving to New York, he had been recording outside the Adderley group. He worked with Kenny ClarkeWes Montgomery, and Walter Booker.

Other projects included the film A Man Called Adam (1966). In the film, Sammy Davis Jr.'s character plays the trumpet. Since Davis could not himself play the trumpet, Adderley was hired to ghost everything that the character played. (wikipedia)

• • •

I tend to enjoy Brooke's puzzles (you can see her bylines at The New Yorker and the American Values Club Crossword and all kindsa places), but I think I've done (or tried to do) one too many of her Extremely Hard "experimental" crosswords from her puzzle website, because even though I smile when I see her name, some part of me experiences a Pavlovian flinch, like "oh no ... trouble!" But it turns out that her mainstream puzzles are probably no harder than anyone else's puzzles, actually. They're just far more thoughtful and entertaining than the average fare. I know I'm going to get stuff from outside my specific wheelhouse (SKINCARE ROUTINE stuff, or contemporary pop culture stuff, or maybe science/tech stuff—Brooke's a scientist), but also enough inside-my-wheelhouse stuff (today, comics, ancient libraries, yoga, Macbeth) to make the puzzle feel familiar and welcoming. What I'm saying is that the puzzle manages to have a specific personality while also feeling broadly inclusive. It casts a wide net with its answers and cluing. Sometimes, some younger constructors make puzzles that, to me, feel fresh and new, but in a kind of clique-ish and exclusionary way, like they're meant to be a kind of "f*** you" to some imagined group of "traditional" solvers. This puzzle, however, manages to have something for everyone, while still proudly wearing its values on its sleeve (lots of women, lots of queer visibility, and for Brooke, if I remember correctly, no meat, no guns). Will no doubt deserves some credit for the balance, but it starts with the constructor, and this one is Reliable.

I tried not to get too excited or hopeful when the puzzle just *gave* me BATWOMAN at 1A: Queer heroine in the DC Universe. I used to have a BATWOMAN figurine ("action figure?") on display in my home office (i.e. where I am right now), but I really Marie Kondo'd this place recently and lots of the knickknackier-type stuff went into storage. Anyway, I became a BATWOMAN fan sometime between when she was rebooted in the comics (as said queer character) and when she eventually got her own TV show. I have largely put superhero comics / movies behind me now, but I will always have a fondness for her. Her comics were fun to read because they had that cool noirish Batman vibe but it wasn't all the same boring, billionaire, "avenge my parents' death" stuff over and over and over. BATWOMAN felt like a real person with real problems. But enough of this NERDFEST ... back to crosswords! (LOL). I am one hundred percent sure that I have seen CHIWETEL EJIOFOR in some puzzle pretty recently ... but apparently still not 100% on the spelling. I was like "ooh, it's CHIWETE ... er, ends in -OR or maybe -FOR? ... damn it!" Luckily the crosses were all fairly simple. That "J" was the last letter to fall:

Also needed a bunch of crosses to see SKINCARE ROUTINE, but again, those crosses came quickly and in abundance, so no real struggle was involved. My one big miss was an experiment that I knew was likely to fail, but I wanted to plug it in and see. I had TIME IS... at 60A: "We don't need to rush" ("TIME IS ON OUR SIDE") and wrote in TIME IS OUR FRIEND. Mwah, perfect fit. But I should've remembered Kurt Russell's famous words in Vanilla Sky:

[I've never actually seen this movie, what in the hell is happening!?]

This massive misstep wasn't so massive, since I knew it was a risk and was always willing to pull it quickly if need be. And need did be, although I did try to "confirm" TIME IS OUR FRIEND by writing in TENNIS at 47D: Match point? (TINDER). No dice, though, ultimately.

Pretty sexy vibe to this one, or ... at least there's lots sex-related stuff. From BATWOMAN's queerness to PAN-sexuality to TINDER "YOU UP?" ACHING RAWNESS SNOGging ... I wanna say JUMPS ON and NAIL should be in there too. So yeah ... WOW, just WOW, a lot of heat, a lot of FIRE in this one. Good morning. And good day.

Signed, Rex Parker, King of CrossWorld 

P.S. TINDER (47D: Match point?) is a dating app, i.e. a "point" where one can make a "match," in case that wasn't clear.

[Follow Rex Parker on Twitter and Facebook]


Jon Alexander 6:12 AM  

I have a feeling TINDER could also be the point where you direct your match to light a fire…works both ways

Anonymous 6:51 AM  

I interpreted TINDER the same way as poster Jon above. Like the other way, too.

I find preachy puzzles to be predictable and, therefore, easier to solve. “Let’s see, what would a proud liberal want to force on solvers here … probably something like — Got it!” Too obvious. Surprise us and delight us, please, but don’t bore us. Having said that, I should add thanks for the good puzzle and write-up today.

Brian A in SLC 6:57 AM  

Given Rex's carping when the Times dares to taint the puzzle with anything that grates on his ethical sensibilities, why then does Rex sully today's blog with a reference to Tom Cruise? As the public face of Scientology, Cruise is the face of human trafficking, enslavement, destruction of families and ruthless predation of troubled individuals. I will never understand why Cruise continues to get a pass from so many informed Americans.

Oh yeah, the puzzle. Nothing like "easy" in my quarters. Maybe if I'd remembered Chiwetel Ejiofor . . . but that NW was a killer. DNF. Still enjoyed it.

Pete 7:00 AM  

I have 100% the same reaction, for the same reasons, as @Rex upon seeing Brooke's name. Her 'experimental' puzzles are brutal.

I have to wonder what person at DC Comics seeking to inject some non cis-gendered/heterosexual characters into their stable looked at Batman and said "Yeah, let's make CATWOMAN is a lesbian". I have to say, CATWOMAN doesn't leap off the page as lesbian as some other characters in Batman leap off the page as homosexual. Sure, CATWOMAN has some kink going on, but kink != homosexual. I'm guessing that person is among the crew who depict all women as having figures like Barbie: 39/18/33 with triple D bra size. You know who's a lesbian? Lois Lane. Superman was just a beard.

@Jon Alexander - My initial thought too, but I'm guessing the intention was the dating app, the dating app was named after the fire-starter, so our reasoning was rightish, in a transitive way.

@Brooke - If you're still in Princeton, go to Cross Cultures on N. Hamilton for your Indian Food (try the Lamb Achari. It's perfect) - they won't force you to have raisins in your NAAN.

Lewis 7:04 AM  

This was a jewel. It gave me such a lovely solve.

I came into it in a good frame. I react to seeing Brooke on Saturday like I do to seeing Robyn on Friday, with a big heart-smile.

Often on Saturday, it’s a low-word-count puzzle (low-to upper 60s), where the difficulty comes from figuring out a host of long answers, and where, for the constructor, it’s all they can do to fill in the grid as cleanly as possible, so there’s not much of a chance to slip personality in through the choice of answers. Today’s 72-worder provides a frame for personality to shine, and Brooke’s glistened.

Biggest rub came from Mr. Ejiofor, where every letter for me was unknown and uninferable – and that’s where fairness came in, because the name uncovered perfectly through Saturday-level-yet-gettable crosses.

Huge scope, touring through the arts, science, sports, religion, history. Bright freshness – look at these NYT debut answers: AERIAL YOGA, BATWOMAN, CHIWETEL EJIOFOR, SKIN CARE ROUTINE, TWININGS, VAGUE IDEA, TIME IS ON OUR SIDE. Every one worthy to go into the canon. Every one of them buzzed for me, not to mention two non-debut buzz-words, TAPSTERS and NERDFEST.

I especially liked the SNOG clue, and I enjoyed the PuzzPair© of ROAST and BROIL.

Thank you, Brooke. You were, relatively recently, IMO, a rising star, but now, IMO, you have entered stardom. Brava for this jewel!

kitshef 7:08 AM  

@Roo Monster and @M&A should be happy today, as we get a host of Fs and Us (including the rare double-U).

Quite a contrast to yesterday, which was a genuine fight (but fair). This was way too easy.

JD 7:28 AM  

Gave up last night, but came back this morning and found that I might be able to doggy paddle my way through Brooke Husic’s wavelength. And I did, until I circled down, over, and back up to that NW corner. Struggled with Wow Just Wow because all I could think of was Just For or For Just, Acropolis (I get it now) isn’t a city, had Props for Supports for a long time, and I didn’t see the movie. But I accept that the downs were my own fault.

Other stuff:

Nerdfest was a problem because I sold myself on Wordfest, (sniff … way better term for a group solve). Nerdfest could describe any nerd group activity that nerds do. Buncha nerds in an orgy. Nerdfest.

Tinder name for the app makes sense now. If Passion is Fire, then Match Point, aha! You Up?

Guess I have a Skin Care Routine, but wanted something to do with breakfast because I'm skin care crepuscular. But I get it youngsters (say hi to your Tapsters for me), once a day is enough because Time Is On Your Side.

How do you deliver a Noel?

What evidence do we have that Batman isn’t also Gay?

I just realized you could call the pope Vatman.

PT 7:33 AM  

As a blue shirt for close to a decade, I may deem a pitch high, low, outside, or inside. But either way, the call is simply “ball”. Never have I heard an umpire, at least not a professional umpire, call a pitch INSIDE. That’s the announcer’s job. Just my $0.02

Zed 7:37 AM  

BATWOMAN, ACROPOLIS, FRIDA Kahlo, CHIWETEL EJIOFOR, Dorothea DIX, Marie CURIE, TRITON, ALEXANDRIA, LIFE OF PI. The rest of the puzzle is relatively PPP free, but that northern third is brutal. 46 of the 52 white squares in the top four lines are PPP in at least one direction. That’s terrible constructing and terrible editing. There’s nothing entertaining about a grid spanning name. NIL. Nada. Zilch. It is still trivia. That the trivia is more inclusive today does not justify piling it up in a section like this. πŸ‘ŽπŸ½πŸ‘ŽπŸ½πŸ‘ŽπŸ½πŸ‘ŽπŸ½πŸ‘ŽπŸ½

The rest of the puzzle only has 6 PPP answers, so Husic can (and often does) make puzzles that are more balanced and less off-putting. But the North is just a stinker. I fully expect lots and lots of “easy” comments duking it out with “challenging” comments because that’s what happens when puzzles rely on Pop Culture, Product Names, and other Proper Nouns for their “challenge.” The only thing that gives me pause on that assessment is that ⅔ of the puzzle is low PPP, so overall the puzzle is PPP-normal. But the north? Oof.

SouthsideJohnny 7:38 AM  

@Lewis summed this one up nicely, with Saturday-level difficulty and enough variety to keep things moving. I’m guessing there will be something to stump pretty much everyone, but with fair crosses it is workable without becoming a slogfest (is “workable without becoming a slogfest” an alternative definition for NERDFEST?).

TAPSTERS and SNOG were tough ones for me, and I learned and interesting tidbit about Marie CURIE - I knew she won twice, but a) didn’t realize they were in different disciplines, and b) didn’t know that she is the only one to have done so. Would have made fertile topics for a biopic starring (hopefully) Meryl Streep.

Greg in Sanibel 7:41 AM  

For the past 4 Tuesday nights, I had the distinct honor and pleasure of taking Brooke and Natan Last’s crossword construction class on Atlas Obscura. Besides the fact that both are warm and friendly and accessible and all around delightful to spend time with, the #1 thing Brooke kept repeating was “consider the solver’s experience.” She is totally solver focused in her choice of words and (especially) clues, and it shows in everything she does. This was a classic example: challenging enough for the weekend, but enough footholds and accessible vocabulary to dig in.

If you have any interest in construction and they ever offer it again, I highly recommend this course. Even if you never intend to BYO grids, it offered so many fascinating insights inside the word sausage factory.

Zed 7:45 AM  

@JD - NOΓ‹L as in a carol. I’d deliver one in a rich (?) baritone.

@PT - Yep. Although I think the networks must encourage umps to be more expressive because when field mics are used I hear all sorts of things I was taught not to say. “Strike” or “ball” are all an ump needs and should call.

Anonymous 8:06 AM  

Amy: fun, fun, fun. Very much enjoyed this.

Bubbabythebay 8:08 AM  

SNL SKIT ...VATMAN has an office in the ACROPOLIS next to his boss

Carola 8:18 AM  

A gentle Saturday workout for me, as opposed to what sounds like the unpleasant rigors of AERIAL YOGA (why would you?), nicely placed, however, next to YOU UP? I especially liked the Ancient World cross of ACROPOLIS and ALEXANDRIA and the parallel potential responses to an opinion: JUMPS ON v. DEFENDS. Were we attending a folkloric creatures NERDFEST, I would take some issue with identifying a brownie as an ELF.

Leaving a movie theater in West Hollywood some years ago, my husband and I shared an elevator with two young men. After one of them got off, the other asked us, "Do you know who that was?" We said no. The answer was CHIWETEL EJIOFOR. It was a no-sight sighting, alas, as I'd adhered to the "keep eyes straight ahead in an elevator" protocol and hadn't once looked at him. It did imprint the name, though.

Sane guy 8:23 AM  

Pretty easy, other than 2 things which I just passed on and when all else was except NW looked 1 of them them up. Not a marvel fan, and certainly don’t pay attention to their sexuality, and never heard of Chiwete so didn’t bother. With Chiwete Last name with a J the rest was easy

Son Volt 8:25 AM  

It’s the percent of grid area filled with trivia today that drags this down. A spanner and most of the longs wasted. The trend of the fill is current and splashy - just little to no real wordplay. SKINCARE ROUTINE is a flat 15 - maybe we’ll get “brush your teeth” next time. We don’t need to rush = we have TIME. TAPSTERS?

A lot of short stuff but mostly clean and fun - TOV, YOO, FAT etc. Clue for STYE is neat. The only thing I know about YOGA comes from crosswords.

One step for ACHING - two steps for breaking

Not my type of Saturday.

Nancy 8:31 AM  

Now, what kind of ----CARE ROUTINE should I be doing in the morning, only I'm not, because I'm too busy with the NYTCW? SKIN? HAIR? FACE? NAIL? I thought of SKINCARE first, but I didn't write it in until much later.

Meanwhile I had cATWOMAN before BATWOMAN. I should know which one is "queer"?

16A is one of those names that few, if any, will know how to spell. Happily, it was fairly crossed. At least for me. And that's because (happily) I've read LIFE OF PI. Maybe that "F" was harder for you? But the even less intuitive "J" was revealed by JUMPS ON -- so that one was much easier.

Finally, here comes a rant. Feel free to skip it. But we all have our hobby horses. Rex has his, @Loren has hers, @Zed has his, and this is mine: To wit: NERD FEST. (Where I initially was about to write hERD FEST, btw.)

I despise this revisionist use of the term NERD. If that's how you, the avid crossword puzzle solver, want to see yourself, fine, but please leave me the bleep out of it. I would choose to never do another crossword ever again rather than be thought of as a NERD for doing them. No matter whether I do them "with a bunch of friends" or completely by myself. Is Bill Clinton a NERD? Is Jon Stewart? According to the documentary "Wordplay", these are two of Crosslandia's (hi, Lewis) most ardent crossword devotees. This clue/answer really offended me...and, as you know by now, I am very rarely offended by anything in a crossword.

That aside, I did enjoy the puzzle.

M Hafeez 8:33 AM  
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GoutMachine 8:50 AM  

Great puzzle! I enjoyed it a lot. I don’t understand ELF and brownie, though. What am I missing?

SouthsideJohnny 8:52 AM  
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Gary Jugert 9:08 AM  

Chiwetel Ejiofor took every single cross and even then there's no chance of knowing if it was correct. I'll bet when he was in elementary school he had a nickname. His full name is Chiwetel Umeadi Ejiofor.

By the way, it also crossed Triton, Alexandria, and Life of Pi proper nouns. Then confounding the rest of the top was Dix, Curie, Batwoman, and Frida. Not great construction.

Also, while fictional, it is my understanding Batwoman is (most recently on TV) a lesbian, and I am not understanding how that's conflated into being queer. To my limited understanding of the term, it means to have a non-society-defined gender expression.

The bottom half of the puzzle was better, but not a lot, with clunkers like kali, rawness, nerdfest, and Twinings holding the position of honor. Had WOO for YOO and actually asked Uncle G what AERIAL WOGA was. Nothing, sayeth he.

None of this was particularly joyous. I am happy to move on.

1 Make out with the fruit of the day.
2 Tell 'em Earl Grey sucks.
3 Certain mollusk having read the morning paper.


TJS 9:09 AM  

"Consider the solvers' experience" ? Not this solver. I'm with @Z (Wow, does that sound weird) on this one. Take your 15 letter name jumble and shove it.

"Batwoman felt like a real person with real problems." You mean when she wasn't kicking the shit out of the Penguin, or something ?

@Nancy, I don't think solving a crossword implies nerdiness, but when your morning ritual requires going to a website to share your comments and read the reactions of an in-group of like-minded people, a certain nerd factor is implied. So I plead guilty.

Space Is Deep 9:12 AM  

I needed every single cross to get CHIWETEL EJIOFOR. Haven’t seen the movie. Never heard of the actress.

Anonymous 9:25 AM  


Anonymous 9:26 AM  

Incredibly easy and quite boring (11:22 maybe my Saturday record) except for 16 A whose clue could have been 'Random string of letters'

Laura 9:34 AM  

I bet this great puzzle was built around Chiwetel Ejiofor. Notable actor with a lot of awards for presumably great work. Who I don't recall ever hearing of. Good use of the honor of being in a broadly distributed crossword, unlike the unsavory names Rex objects to. It did add a lot of challenge... usually I can figure out part of an unknown name based with limited crosses. Not this time

RooMonster 9:37 AM  

Hey All !
Since CHIWETEL EJIOFOR is in every other movie, his name filled in rather quickly. Good actor.

Different looking grid. Nice grid spanners, crossing a few long Downs. Lite dreck. Only a couple writeovers.

Sorry my posts have been quite blah lately, sometimes you have an off week!

yd -6, should'ves 3
Duo 36, missed 1-2-3-5

Six F's (F FEST 😁)

Anonymous 9:38 AM  


Nancy 9:53 AM  

@Southside and @TJS: Where I come from -- I refer to the decade, not the place -- NERD was/is a thoroughly pejorative term. Very, very pejorative. It can't ever be scrubbed clean and turned into a positive in my book. So that while I'm quite intrigued by the willingness of each of you to embrace NERD FEST and your own place in it voluntarily, to me "them's fightin' words" and I shall resist them till my dying day.

Tom T 9:58 AM  

When I had the ending letters of 37A, AREROUTINE, I thought, "Is there such a thing as a morning SoftWARE ROUTINE?"

And it took me a long time to let go of fAint IDEA for 65A (Inkling), even to the point of undoing YOU UP, which I felt sure about.

But I finished a Saturday puzzle in errorless form in less than an hour, and for me that is in the genewral neighborhood of WOW, just WOW. Last letter in was the Y in STYE.

I'm also unclear about the Brownie/ELF connection.

Anonymous 9:59 AM  

I'd bet $1000 Rex would never refer to a puzzle made by a man to be sexy.

Anonymous 10:04 AM  
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kitshef 10:04 AM  

Interesting that will all the complaints about names, no one has mentioned GUNN, which was my only WoE today. GUNN should always have a Treasure Island clue.

Anonymous 10:04 AM  

@zed 100%. Way too much PPP in that top 1/3. Basically just - “I’m thinking of a person, do you know how to spell their name?” Snooze fest that felt like pub trivia.

Greater Fall River Committee for Peace & Justice 10:05 AM  

Whew. I googled for CIWETELEJIOFOR and was surprised to find that the several dubious-looing crossings I had were all correct. I was sad that 3d Son of Poseidon was TRITON, I was hoping for another Orion sighting -- my dog's name is Orion and he gets his picture on facebook every time he's in the puzzle. My ending came in a bit of a rush, because I actually knew TAPSTER, from my time spent in the 14th century.

Tappster, Drynker, fylle another ale, anon
Have I do, God send us good ale.
Avale the stake, avale, here ys good ale y founde.
Drynke to me and y to thee, and lette the cuppe go rounde.

burtonkd 10:10 AM  

@Z - very true about the North. I had to work my way up from the south. Anna GUNN was the way in, so PPP hindering that entrance. I figure that name with the double double ENS must be a favorite for @Lewis. Ultimately, I guess the puzzle was fair, since I could get it without google help. And, what a grand list of PPP!

@Nancy: Just like Queer was a derogatory that has since been owned by the community as a badge of honor, the meaning of NERD has had the same transformation. Makes for an interesting PuzzPair today (hi, Lewis). Rex did a fun bit about all the kinds of nerds out there now. I, for instance, am a music nerd, cycling nerd, crossword nerd, etc. There, I said it - take that, middle school bullies from my past! Your word has no sting!

As a basketball nerd, I couldn't get Jahlil Okafor out of my head enough to have any hope of spelling CHEW....FOR.

Double AHA with Match point. Not tennis, but a match to light a fire/oh, that is where the app name comes from.

@Gary Jugert, good point about Batman - he definitely seems more emotionally connected to Alfred than Lois, who seems to only be around for his public face.

ACROPOLIS, while PPP, is solvable in the SAT skills way of using root words.

I didn't know about Brownie the Elf. From old Scottish tradition, on and off mascot of the Cleveland Browns football team. Kind of an interesting rabbit hole.

Anonymous 10:12 AM  

If you’re still in Princeton, go to Conti’s.

Apparently you’ve never played baseball. At least not above Little League.
Umps do say ball occasionally, but strike is rarely uttered. If Blue thinks it’s a strike, he’ll some kind of noise and a hand gesture.. Most often no word is used for a particular pitch. As the at bat progresses he’ll often indicate whether the last pitch was a ball or strike by announcing the count.Generally only a close pitch elicits an actual word and it’s to describe location, as in up, or loan or down or outside, inside.

Rube 10:16 AM  

Agree. 16A is 15 random letters for me , and i have never heard wow just wow , but win just win is definitely a thing and acripolis could be a created word similar to acropolis

Birchbark 10:25 AM  

Swords into ploughshares, and guns into GNUS.

AERIAL YOGA -- We have a purple hammock strung between a couple of box elders on the hillside behind our house -- there's always some level of gymnastic slapstick when climbing aboard it. A mindful practice in its own right, and now I know what to call it.

BACKS ACHING is a very nice pair. But I read it as a prophecy of how I'll feel later in the day after doing battle with some buckthorn trees that want to establish on the hammock-hill. They have a way of fighting back those who would cross ways with them.

Buckthorn-pulling NERD-FEST alert (@Nancy, feel free to skip past this, though you're also welcome to reconsider your position): To get rid of the buckthorn, I'm going to try out a new "Puller-Bear" tool, which is supposed to take them out roots and all. It's basically a heavy, L-shaped lever with a vise at the base (which grabs the tree at ground level). The bend of the "L" is the fulcrum. You push or pull down at the far end with all of your might (sort of) and weight (considerable), and out goes the tree + roots.

Now you're INFORMED about a theory of buckthorn pulling. I'm interested in how this will work in practice. I imagine there will be some swearing involved.

Kate 10:35 AM  

I was pleased to find a Saturday puzzle pretty easy. I got IMO on crosses but still don’t get it.

Joe Dipinto 10:48 AM  

I knew CHIWETEL EJIOFOR and how to spell it, so it was the first thing I plunked in — unfortunately for me, it was the only interesting thing in the puzzle. The rest felt mundanely simple.

But Nat Adderley is always welcome. My favorite tune of his.

And here he is playing a lovely ballad.

Anonymous 10:50 AM  

Wow just wow? No.

Anonymous 10:53 AM  

Re: Noel, it’s a common name for babies (deliveries) born on Christmas

Joe Dipinto 10:55 AM  

The thing about NERD is, it's become a completely meaningless descriptor. People just use it to mean "a fan of...". As evidenced by the puzzle clue.

Zed on his iPhone 10:55 AM  

@burtonkd - If the PPP had been distributed throughout the puzzle this would have been NYTX typical. I suspect for Husic it was a wheelhouse thing. When PPP is in one’s wheelhouse it just doesn’t get noticed.* So I blame the editors as much as the constructor. But I agree that as PPP goes this is wide-ranging and inclusive, so better than what we often get.

@Anon asking about PPP - I snuck the definition in the last paragraph.

*Long Long ago I started counting PPP after asserting that a high PPP puzzle was relatively pop culture free. It wasn’t, it was just all in my wheelhouse.

GILL I. 10:57 AM  

This was a perfect Saturday HARD FEST. I'm not fond of the word NERD (Hi @Nancy)... I like FEST. We can have a SNOG FEST a KIT DIX ELF FAT PAY FEST and I will do the fandango tango for all of you free of charge.
I'd really like to know how many of YOU put BAT WOMAN in without so much as a wink...She's queer? To me queer means different. What happened to lesbian? I'm so confused with words I can and cannot use.
Then I get to spelling 16A. I knew he had a sing-song name; I knew I couldn't pronounce it and I knew I'd need every single down to get it. Anyway, if any of YOU just plunked those in then YOUR MELONS are a lot bigger than mine.
This took two sittings. I started late last night with very few entries. Went to bed. Got up to do my SKIN CARE ROUTINE. I have to slather on some Lush and pencil in a few eyebrow strands. My husband calls it the three SSS. Made husband his cup of Yorkshire tea (he forgoes TWININGS), made my Pete's French ROAST, sat in my favorite chair and continued with my deep concentration
I cheated with some of the names. Didn't know KALI nor GUNN. DIX and NAT I got from crosses. FAT fingers flying all over the place because I can't spell. Smiled at getting ALL the long answers, sat back and just didn't want this to end. It was hard but very satisfying.
I will now finish plucking my eyebrows because I don't want them to look like FRIDA's.

bocamp 11:02 AM  

Thx, Brooke, for a fun Sat. puz! :)


Smooth top to bottom solve, with PODS / IMO being somewhat hard to see for some reason. πŸ€”

Loved the cluing for: SNOG, NOELS, TOV, PAR.

Fave answer: TIME IS ON OUR SIDE.

Most umps I know just call 'ball' or 'strike'. Occasionally, a catcher might ask 'where was it?', in which case I would provide the info related to why I called it a 'ball', e.g., INSIDE, etc. NOTE: (umpire mechanics vary widely depending on experience and level of ball, e.g., Little League - Pros)

Enjoyable Sat. morn romp! :)
td pg -17 / yd 0 / W: 4* / WH: 3 / Duo: 34

Peace πŸ™ πŸ‡ΊπŸ‡¦ ~ Compassion ~ Tolerance ~ Kindness to all πŸ•Š

jae 11:13 AM  

Easy, except for maybe CHIWE...but I had an inkling and the crosses were there. cAT before BAT caused the NW to fall last. I do not follow comic book movies (last time I paid attention there was a Bat Girl but that was probably in the ‘60s). I recently read about a LGBTQ+ character in an upcoming movie. I just looked it up and it was a Cat Woman movie and Zoe Kravitz plays her as bi, so cAT before BAT was not entirely wrong. Turns out BAT WOMAN is a CW TV series with a lesbian heroine.

...any way, delightful puzzle, liked it a bunch!

beverly c 11:19 AM  

Another vote with Zed - I enjoy seeing CHIWETEL on screen but didn’t know the spelling, even thinking Eliwetel? Cliofor? Never heard of Anna GUNN so had Dunn. Emus. Determined the queer comic character was a woman, eventually, but not what kind. Didn't know DIX, but guessed. To make matters worse, I went for Why, just why? Instead of WOW. What a mess.

The bottom half of the puzzle was gettable, but not particularly rewarding, alas.

egsforbreakfast 11:22 AM  

Did you ever hang a BA? Well when a couple o’ dudes do it, it’s known as a BA TWO MAN!!! Usually the dudes are really just engaged in a SNOG FAD for MELONS and should keep their DIX in their pants.

Last time I ordered a Peshwari it was a NAAN starter.

Why is a SKINCAREROUTINE like Christmas in San Francisco? NOELS.

What did the father say before he and his kid parachuted? JUMP SON

Well that’s all the GNUS for today, other than that I very much liked this puzzle. Thank you Brook Husic. You are in the pantheon of constructors in my book.

jberg 11:30 AM  

Fun fact: CHIWETEL EJIOFOR has the same number of letters as CHadwick Boseman. I never saw the movie and had no IDEA, not even a VAGUE one, of who aw the star, so I went with the more familiar name; or rather, I write in CHad as lightly as I could and started to check the crosses. BACKS and ACHING worked, but then I foolishly mixed languages and wrote in AltOPOLIS at 13-A. This made me question even the correct letters, so when I had cATWOMAN at 1-A I started looking for a replacement for the C in BACKS.

Then down South I confidently put in let's take OUR tImE. And I had sEcoNDS at 24-D, making it really hard to see NERDFEST (how about a NERD camp?), FAD, or MOTIF.

I finally gave up and turned to IMDB, which gave me Mr. EJIOFOR, and the rest gradually worked itself out. As I neared the end, I remarked to my wife, "well, I'm going to solve this puzzle, but I won't be able to read it after I do."

Brownies can be a sweet confection, or the first level of the Girl Scouts, but they are also little elves who come out at night and clean your house, as long as you leave them a bowl of milk. According to Wiki, they're Scots.

Another kealoa at 57-A: bOO or YOO?

pabloinnh 11:33 AM  

Hand up for:

The B/CATWOMAN confusion.
Needing every cross for CHIWETELEJIOFOR.
Not knowing Ms. GUNN.

Otherwise NIL and NADA in the complaint department.

The ML umps I overhear now seem mostly to be saying "Ball in" for that kind of pitch.

Nice Saturday, BH. Thought it was going to be real trouble, but as I am a Battle Hardened veteran of these, it ran smoothly to a satisfying finsih, and thanks for all the fun.

Newboy 11:34 AM  

Always good to see Brooke’s name at the credit line. She has consistently been a challenging but fair constructor whose range and balance delight & amuse. Thanks to Rex for those links which made learning a bit more about Ms Husic so easy and definitely deepened my appreciation of her craft. Now I’m getting a VAGUE IDEA of how those Brit-centric entries for tea, actors and osculate creep into her grids! I could always appreciate her cleverness, but her vita is WOW JUST WOW. Those dissertation topics hint at what she might do to solvers were she less kind. Good news to again find GNUS and Ms DIX with the company of FRIDA and Madam CURIE and BATWOMAN….a SLY SMELL of sisterhood that. Great Saturday.

Dorkito Supremo 11:38 AM  

Regarding the ELF confusion above, with E_F crossing KA_I, and the e.g. implying an initialism or abbreviation (so i thought), I frowned at this classic Nattick. Any consonant seemed plausible, since I did not know the deity. Now I know (per Wiki) that a brownie is a type of mythical creature that comes out at night to help with chores (unless you piss it off by trying to baptize it). And I now know that KALI is something other than a martial art. Ok, I learned that. Great. But what's with the e.g. in the clue?

Anonymous 11:48 AM  

@OFL has a dirty mind. the 'match point' in starting a campfire is the tinder. note the spelling.
refused to see other than Self CARE ROUTINE.

dajha 11:52 AM  

I think my favorite part of this puzzle is the image of Alexandria defending aerial yoga!

Masked and Anonymous 12:00 PM  

M&A tanked. So much stuff I didn't know. Filled in about half the puzgrid, in a scatter-shot way, then turned it over to the PuzEatinSpouse for polishin off. Coulda googled the "12 Years a Slave" dude and the British tea name and a few others, but since there was no ahar theme around to goad m&e on, I just sorta … tanked.

Didn't throw anything at any walls, tho. Just decided this SatPuz happened to be almost totally outside my wheelhouse. Turns out, now that I see the whole solved-up rodeo, maybe there was quite a lot of neat things in there that I mighta eventually got -- har, but probably not in time to post today.

staff weeject pick: YOO. Just YOO.

Tankx for lettin us gang up on U, Ms. Husic darlin. It was bats, woman.

Masked & Anonymo5Us

@RP: Easy?!?! [snort]
@Roo: Dang … more F's than U's, dude!

CDilly52 12:28 PM  

That was my (old person) take since I had no idea that TINDER exists in the internet dating universe.

sixtyni yogini 12:28 PM  

If it weren’t for NERDFEST, I would PAN this one.
Okay, I learned his name. And the puzzle turned out to be easy except for
whom I shall never forget.
Thanks for the NERDFEST.

Anoa Bob 12:30 PM  

Had SNOB for 21A "French, to the English?" although the question mark looked questionable. I had no reason to question BUNN for the 22D Emmy winning Anna. That B instead of a G was my dnf downfall.

I helped put myself through grad school---no student loan programs back then, thank goodness---by bartending. I did not then nor have I heard since a bartender being called a TAPSTER. But I do see a convenient way to overcome TAPSTER not having enough letters to fill its slot at 67 Across. Oh, and look, that same S also enables the letter count deprived PLEA to fill its 54 Down slot. A two for one POC where one is most likely to be found.

My SKIN CARE ROUTINE for several years now has been to avoid using harsh chemicals like those found in soaps and body washes that strip away the SKIN's protective oils like sebum and upset the healthy balance of the SKIN's natural microbiome. Marketers will try to sell us expensive concoctions to wash away these natural protections and then sell us more expensive concoctions to replace them. And then sell us expensive concoctions to clean the scum residue left behind on the shower stall walls by those other expensive concoctions.

You can call me a NERD, a HICK or whatever and I will tell you that "Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me".

CDilly52 12:32 PM  

AMEN @Brian A! I had to go down to Dorothea DIX and Marie CURIE to get a toehold in Across-land, and didn’t really start humming until the bottom half. Not easy. But very clean and enjoyable.

Zed 12:37 PM  

Regarding the Great TINDER debate: Hand up for thinking the dating site but people who were more in a camping frame of mind have a legitimate argument. That the clue works for both is a bonus in my opinion. Considering that something that serves to incite or inflame is one of the definitions, is it any surprise that the dating site chose TINDER as it’s name.
Somebody pointed at the spelling, I think you are confusing Grindr (no E) with TINDER (kept the E).

Anonymous 12:44 PM  

I am a long-time bartender, and I have never heard the word “tapster” before. Seems made up.

CDilly52 12:48 PM  

I am familiar with and a huge fan of Brooke Husic’s work, especially in The New Yorker; those just have a special flavor to them that appeals. Today was such a wonderful example of her artistry. Things I can not quiiiiite remember correctly (like whether it’s CHITWELl or just CHITWEL. And forget how to spell EJIOFOR - that’s why the crosses exist (I always think it’s EJuOFOR. All I have to say for the top is thank goodness for Dorothea DIX and Marie CURIE. Which illustrates a favorite characteristic of Brooke’s work. The balance. Somehow, she leaves little chinks for toeholds amid the more illusive but clever clues. Today’s were the older solver bones” up in the top half. Balance and artistry. Damn, she’s good!

Pure joy. Thanks, Brooke.

Dan 12:53 PM  

Revenge of the Nerds came out in 1984 when I was a freshman in high school. So I was born into a world where "nerd" was a pejorative word, but the 80's changed all of that. From then on, I think it's been understood that nerds are actually cool, just in a different way.

And yes, I do think Bill Clinton and Jon Stewart are nerds. Some of our best!

old timer 12:57 PM  

DNF. Had cATWOMAN and wasn't gonna give it up. I know nothing about comix women except for Lois Lane, who was a perfectly straight girl reporter for the Daily Planet, who JUST had no idea that her mild-mannered boyfriend was also Superman.

Now I would have gotten BACKS and therefore BAT, if only I had thought of KIT. Which means "set" in only one context, a set of drums.

Everything else was pretty Easy. With just a few crosses I got TIME IS ON OUR SIDE. TAPSTERS, I guessed. Our local Russian River brewpubs have only TAPSTERS, beer galore, but no liquor. I doubt anyone has ever used TAPSTERS for them, but it was guessable.

TWININGS brought back a fond memory of my first visit to London, as part of a student tour group in 1965 or so. We stayed at the Norfolk Hotel, now gone, close to the Strand. I walked there and passed the TWININGS Tea store, and was agog. I knew TWININGS of course -- at the time, the best known imported tea brand. It was a thrill to walk in and have a taste. The store has been in that location for centuries. Must have been early in the morning, before our chartered bus tour, and definitely before we could walk to Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese for our first taste of English beer. I was even more agog to also see those famous double decker buses rumbling down the road.

My only other writeover was to replace the ubiquitous erns with TUGS, which are very much a harbor sight. Had no idea about the gridspanning actor, but had I gotten BACKS, I would have had his name 100% on crosses.

SNOG strikes me as relatively new. Of course we learned about French kissing in high school days, but the word SNOG did not exist in America then. Did it in England? What we LA types knew from was SmOG, and there was nothing romantic about that.

MarthaCatherine 1:12 PM  

So glad so many of you found this easy. Not I. I roamed around looking for a place to get a toe hold. Searching, searching, then aha! 42A, Big name in English tea. I plunked down EARL GREY, easy peasy.

Hah. Nearly made the whole puzzle a DNF trying to unravel that. Figured I'd come here and find a million comments about the same mistake. But apparently I'm alone in this.

Then I had --OG at 21A so I wrote frOG and thought, whoa!!, isn't that like calling someone a wop or kraut? I was quite surprised this would pass the editing. Finally figured out both TWININGS and SNOG and felt awfully silly, especially about the frogs.

And of course 16A was a lot of fun. Knew the movie, knew it was a real mishmash of letters, and the the crosses saved me.


jimihaveaname 1:47 PM  

The right kind of fun, though I'd convinced myself that ARIELBOGA was a thing that I was just not hip enough to know, and the BOO cross worked fine, didn't it? I sure didn't know some of the other long name and character answers, but the crosses served to edumacate me.

TAB2TAB 1:48 PM  

Agree with Zed, starting out, I saw 6 of the first 8 across were PPP and immediately realized that wheelhouse was taking center stage today. Thankfully the lower 2/3rds of the puzzle was more word-fest than nerd-Fest, so I managed to work my way upward from the bottom and eventually solve without Uncle Google. Lots of strike outs in the top 3rd though: Pay before PAR, Iam before IDO, BumP before BLIP, NIt before NIL, Was before WOW, ACtING before ACHING, cATWOMAN before BATWOMAN (back and forth several times), woRDFEST before NERDFEST, fIT before KIT, AnnaPOLIS before ACROPOLIS, and about 10 different variations of nonsense before CHIWETELEJIOFAR. (There was no Aha! moment when CHIWETELEJIOFAR went in, in case anyone was wondering.) I did manage to come up with Dorothea DIX, and the X was what landed ALEXANDRIA so perhaps I've got a little wheelhouse in me. Ultimately, it was do-able with Saturday-level crunch, but mostly because of that PPP.

Aelurus 2:06 PM  

CHIWETEL EJIOFOR is one of my favorite actors and has a name that’s fun to say aloud, which I usually can’t resist when I see it (restraint appropriate in a theater). But I had the W and T transposed so DNF in those two squares, and in the crossing words, including BAT_O_AN crossing those. Yep, it looked like BATWOMAN but, you see, I was so sure I’d spelled his first name correctly. Ejiofor was excellent in 12 Years a Slave, and he absolutely made the movie Kinky Boots.

Had woRDFEST before NERDFEST and for the ROUTINE had Self-CARE (though I loathe that term) before SKIN-CARE (ah, much better). Also AERIAL Yawn (just having fun) before YOGA.

Nice to see GNUS is making a real comeback.

Luckily guessed correctly at NAAN (haven’t yet seen a raisin one) and TAPSTERS.

Wonderfully devilish clue at 21A SNOG.

Fun cross at YOO/YOU.

Enjoyed the workout - no yawns here - thank you, Brooke!

OISK 2:09 PM  

Finished it, completing a few unblemished weeks. More recent puzzles have mainly avoided my dead zones - brand names, pop music, techie acronyms. In this case, while I had not the foggiest notion of who Chiwe is, the down clues were fair and unambiguous - good construction! As to "nerds".... My group of college friends consisted almost entirely of chem majors, almost all (not I ) pre-med. We often walked around with small slide rules in our shirt pockets. And we observed that (in our minds) "nerd" was a term thrown by the less talented at the more talented. Our chosen term of insult was "psych major." ( We all grew out of that, I am happy to say; we all had started college at age 16...)

okanaganer 2:21 PM  

Yes a great puzzle, if a bit easy. If not for Mr. Ejiofor it would have been way too easy! I saw that movie but it was a long time ago. I also saw LIFE OF PI (and read the novel!) but the clue made me think of LION (which was a pretty good film too).

Now I have the earworm of Mick singing "Time is on our side". (Actually it was "my side", but it sounds the same.)

[Spelling Bee: yd 0... finally! I learned a new word.]

Aelurus 3:43 PM  

@Greg in Sanibel 7:41 am – Thanks for mentioning the Atlas Obscura class and its window into crossword wordplay; will check to see if there’s another being considered.

@CDilly 12:48 pm – Agree! I’ve seen her in the New Yorker’s crosswords and appreciate her special “flavor” (nicely put). Robyn Weintraub, Elizabeth Gorski, Will Nediger, Patrick Berry, Erik Agard, and others appear there too.

Jim Horne today on xwordinfo says this:
“Crosswords are changing, though, and more constructors with a point of view realize they have a platform and an opportunity to express an opinion. To push people out of their comfort zone. To point out what the quiet, comfortable puzzles are leaving out, and open a window to worlds and people and cultures that NYT crosswords have neglected. I've come to appreciate that, and I have constructors like Brooke Husic to thank.”
IMHO I think he’s right. I notice the NYT puzzle changing too; more slowly than the NYer, but yes.
PS: @Kate 10:35 am - in my opinion can sometimes become in my humble opinion.

Harry 4:05 PM  

No success immediately on my fill. Scanned for a couple of minutes when I realized that I had flubbed "Brief bit" by filling SaC (thinking "pouch").

Anonymous 4:07 PM  

Can you please explain for those of us new to the acronym? PPP? Pretty puzzling piece? Perfect pain in the patootie?

Brian A in SLC 4:07 PM  

@Kate 10:35

IMO - in my opinion

IMHO - in my humble opinion

puzzlehoarder 4:19 PM  

The north half of the puzzle was harder than the southern half but only due to the NW. In the NE, FRIDA and CURIE we're gimmes so that corner filled easily. Ironically ACROPOLIS and ALEXANDRIA we're just as obvious. It was the rest of that NW corner that provided the resistance. Initially the only downs I could come up with were BACKS and NIL. The B of BACKS didn't give me BATWOMAN because I didn't know there was a BATWOMAN. Even when I finished the puzzle by backfilling the NW I somehow thought that BATWOMAN meant cATWOMAN. Only when someone mentioned cATWOMAN in the comments did I realize that BATWOMAN was a completely different character. Weird.

For the "Brownie" clue at 43A I am apparently the only person to have an IVY league misdirect.

The grid spanning actor's name was a complete mystery but the crosses were all solid.

I did not find the puzzle easy. It took me 7 minute longer than yesterday's solve so a typical Saturday to Friday ratio for me.

yd -0, dbyd -0, We'd pg -3, Mon + Tue -0, Sun pg -1, Sat -0

Anonymous 4:49 PM  

Not Catwoman. Batwoman. You're making up reasons to be outraged. Calm down.

Anonymous 5:20 PM  

Pop culture, Product Names, Proper Nouns

Beezer 5:54 PM  

Late to the game today. Worked the puzzle early but had to forego coming here until now. I thought this was a great puzzle (and fun) but will say this:

@Zed AND @jberg…yeah, 16A took up a lot of real estate and I am someone who tends to zone on celebrity/actor names after a certain amount of syllables. @Jberg, like you, I THOUGHT of Chadwick Boseman (a mere 4 syllables) but didn’t fill it in because, well I’m not sure why, but felt/knew that was not the answer (lucky me!). Anyway, I confess I had a problem in the Northwest corner for crosses and I’m sure the crosses were fair, but there you have it.

@Zed, I also eventually got TINDER based on the website but I agree it is brilliant that the answer could be sussed another way…

Which leads me to @cDilly52…yeah, do NOT take this as true but I think TINDER is the site for young (mostly) peeps out on the weekend and, let’s say, you are in a bar, or in an area where young peeps gather, and a person will show show up on TINDER feed. If you would like to meet them, you swipe your phone one way, if not, you swipe it the other. Lol, @Zed might weigh in on swipe directions, but I know there is a “swipe left/swipe right” thing. Anyhoo…I’m not sure if it’s brilliant or awful.

@Anoa Bob, with respect to your SNOb comment, 🀣🀣🀣

Anonymous 4:07, Lordy I hope @Zed (or someone who can copy and paste the whole thing)…I am NOT the person to answer BUT I THINK two of the Ps are Pop culture and Product names. The third P escapes me BUT I know it’s not considered “good” a puzzle has more than 30% PPP. HELP Commentariat that know!

A 6:26 PM  

I began IN ERROR, with cATWOMAN and AltO——S (Hi, @jberg), and puT for KIT. (Set it down, put it down. Oh, set - the noun. Wasn't sold on KIT and set being the same, but I see it's been explained - thanks, @old timer!) Anyway, I abandoned the high ground and found traction in the east and south. Finally shimmied up the BACKS of the GNUS and it all fell into place.

Almost. Thanks to Anne bUNN and her French SNOb, a one-letter DNF. Mais oui, le SNOG! But thankfully not a slog. Lots of ribald stuff, as @Rex pointed out. KALI, PAN and the ELF certainly make for a mischievous trio.

I balked briefly at the Nobel answer. I thought Mme. CURIE had been joined in that distinction? Oh, the clue said “scientific fields” so Linus Pauling’s Nobel Peace Prize doesn’t qualify. From Wiki: “For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. He is one of four people to have won more than one Nobel Prize (the others being Marie Curie, John Bardeen and Frederick Sanger). Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes, and one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie.

Also according to Wiki, Linus’ mother was Lucy.

wOO before YOO (HOO). bOO.

Thanks, Ms. Husic, for another challenging but interesting workout!

Zed 7:19 PM  

PPP - Pop Culture Product Names and other Proper Nouns. Generally speaking I count both entries and clues. When the PPP is 33% or more of puzzle entries the comments will usually see the wheelhouse/outhouse phenomenon. That is, for some people the PPP will be in their wheelhouse so it will be extremely easy while for other the PPP will be in their outhouse so will be hard. The NYTX is rarely below 20% PPP, and is usually in the 20-33% range.
Todays puzzle is unusual because the amount of PPP is in the normal range, but most of it is concentrated in the top four rows.

Blog History - I started counting PPP after a Saturday that was in my wheelhouse and it was only after @OISK complained about all the Pop Culture that I went back and counted and discovered I had underestimated how much PPP was in the puzzle. The 33% is based on toting up the amount and reading the comments.
Older Blog History - I chose PPP as a nod to @Lewis’ Post Puzzle Puzzlers. I still haven’t forgiven Rex for asking @Lewis to stop after somebody complained. I then retrofitted what the initialism stood for.

LateSolver 8:49 PM  

Struggled with the HEAVY PPP in the top (well, not struggled, didn't even get traction). That, in and of itself, killed the puzzle for me - I didn't even put in an effort on the bottom half even though it was much easier because the top completely ruined it for me. I appreciate a good challenge on a Saturday, but not at the expense of heavy PPP, especially obscure and/or obsolete PP as in today's puzzle.

Anonymous 9:01 PM  

Having interned at SNL years ago (the same year as Meghan McCain - lucky me!), I have to say SNL does not air skits. They are sketches. Skits are for summer camp.

Anonymous 10:13 PM  

Calling that easy is an insult to us all and I’m actually tiring of it. Rex calls every puzzle easy as some way to boost his ego. That puzzle was hard by any measure.

Beezer 10:31 PM  

@Zed, that care of it! I need to copy and save your explanation YAWN…sometime soon…YIKES it’s late….yeah…sometime soon…πŸ’€

Nancy 11:06 PM  

Just did tomorrow's Sunday puzzle and it's terrific! I won't get back to the blog to discuss it in detail for many, many hours, but I wouldn't want anyone to miss it. One of the best puzzles I've ever done.

Beezer 11:27 PM  

Omg it is LATE. @Zed I copied and pasted your PPP explanation into my Notes so I might be able to “pinch hit” in future.

Ψ§Ω„Ψ«Ω‚Ω‡ Ω„Ω„Ψ―ΩŠΩƒΩˆΨ± 11:27 AM  
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Ψ§Ω„Ψ«Ω‚Ω‡ Ω„Ω„Ψ―ΩŠΩƒΩˆΨ± 11:27 AM  
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